Beiträge zur Minderheitengeschichte

Klos, Narratives of Otherness, S.6

Endnotes

[i] Wolfgang Wippermann: Die ewigen Außenseiter, online available: Zeit online, <http://www.zeit.de/zeit-geschichte/2015/04/sinti-und-roma-zigeuner-migration-gewalt-fremdenhass> (11.12.15).

[ii] Romani (plural Romanies) will be used in the following as an umbrella term for a worldwide scattered population that is referred to by many different exonyms, such as ‘gypsies,’ ‘Zigeuner,’ ‘gitanos,’ ‘Heiden,’ or ‘cigani.’ As many of these terms have misleading etymologies, for instance ‘gypsy’ is derived from Egyptian, or have been and are used in a derogatory way, Romanies have coined different endonyms, such as ‘Rom,’ or ‘Rrom’ (plural ‘Roma’ or ‘Rroma’), which actually denotes a masculine noun in the Romani language. In addition, while Romani signifies a collective group, there are many different subdivisions, such as ‘Sinti,’ ‘Jenische,’ ‘Travellers,’ ‘Manouche,’ or ‘Ashkali.’ Yet in this context, the term Romani is chosen in accordance with Ian Hancock to de-emphasize other misleading and possibly harmful names, and to refer to a constructed collective of Romani peoples. Cf. Ian Hancock: We are the Romani people. Ames am e Rromane džene, Hatfield 2002 (reprint 2012), pp. xvii-xxi. To be more explicit, ‘Romanies’ is not a term meant to substitute a charged term like ‘Zigeuner’ one-to-one. On the contrary, this logical fallacy is meant to be pointed out in this paper. See especially p. 7-8 of this paper.

[iii] Respectively known by Romani name Porajmos or Porrajmos.

[iv] Non-Romanies are often referred to as gadže (one possible spelling used in the Romanichal [English Romani] dialect). However, such a construction draws a line between the minority and the majority society, a concept which I intend to problematize in this paper. In the following ‘non-Romani’ will be used deliberately as an analytical term not as a description of realities.

[v] Heinrich Moritz Gottlieb Grellmann: Historischer Versuch über die Zigeuner. Betreffend die Lebensart und Verfassung […], Göttingen ²1787, p. 223.

[vi] Cf. Ulrich Friedrich Opfermann: „Zu Teutschland lang gezogen und geporen.“ Zur frühneuzeitlichen Geschichte der Sinti in Mitteleuropa, in: Sinti und Roma. Eine deutsche Minderheit zwischen Diskriminierung und Emanzipation (BpB Schriftenreihe, vol. 1573), ed. by Oliver von Mengersen, Bonn and Munich 2015, p. 23.

[vii] Wippermann: Außenseiter; Grellmann, Historischer Versuch, p. 223; Opfermann: Zu Deutschland, p. 23; Angus Fraser: The Gypsies (The peoples of Europe), Oxford / Cambridge 1992, p. 187.

[viii] Cf. Grellmann: Historischer Versuch, pp. 200-215.

[ix] Fraser: Gypsies, chap. 4 “The Great Trick,” pp. 60-84. See also Hancock, Romani people, pp. 31-33.

[x] Fraser, Gypsies, p. 128.

[xi] Ibid, p. 62: „They [Romanies] are no uncoordinted rabble, but move in an apparently purposeful way under leaders with impressive titles.“ Grellmann, Historischer Versuch, p. 213: “Dieser Irrthum [Egyptian origin] gründete sich auf die eigene, ziemlich einmüthige Aussage der Zigeuner selbst.”

[xii] There is one exception that came to my attention: Ines Köhler-Zülich: Die verweigerte Herberge. Die Heilige Familie in Ägypten und andere Geschichten von “Zigeunern” – Selbstäußerungen oder Außenbilder?, in: Die gesellschaftliche Konstruktion des Zigeuners. Zur Genese eines Vorurteils (Wissenschaftliche Reihe des Fritz Bauer Instituts, vol. 2), Frankfurt / New York 1996, pp. 46-86, especially 51.

[xiii] Cf. Walter Pohl: Introduction – Strategies of Identification: A methodological profile, in: Strategies of identification. Ethnicity and Religion in Early Medieval Europe, ed. by Walter Pohl and Gerda Heydemann, Turnhout 2013, p. 10.

[xiv] Fraser: Gypsies, p. 62.

[xv] Pohl: Identification, p. 31. See also page 17 of this paper.

[xvi] Felicitas Schmieder: Europa und die Fremden. Die Mongolen im Urteil des Abendlandes vom 13. bis in das 15. Jahrhundert (Beiträge zur Geschichte und Quellenkunde des Mittelalters, vol. 16), diss. 1991, Sigmaringen 1994.

[xvii] Colleen Chi-Wei Ho: A Sign of the Apocalypse or Christendom’s Ally? European-Mongol Relations in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, diss. 2013, University of California, online available: ProQuest Dissertations <http://search.proquest.com/docview/1468678519?accountid=11359> (18.12.15).

[xviii] Almut Höfert: Den Feind beschreiben. »Türkengefahr« und europäisches Wissen über das Osmanische Reich 1450-1600 (Campus Historische Studien, vol. 35), diss. 2001, Frankfurt/New York 2003.

[xix] Marion Lievre: What does it mean to be « Roma »? : The discourses of the Roma national and ethnical movement and “everyday ethnicity” of Roma people in Romania, online available: The Gypsy Lore Society’s annual meetings <http://www.gypsyloresociety.org/annual-meeting/abstracts> (18.12.15).

[xx] For further information on the definitions and terminology of ethnicity compare Pohl, Identification, 2-3.

[xxi] Cf. Fraser: Gypsies, 35.

[xxii] Reimar Gilsenbach (Ed.): Weltchronik der Zigeuner. 2000 Ereignisse aus der Geschichte der Roma und Sinti, der Gypsies und Gitanos und aller anderen Minderheiten, die „Zigeuner“ genannt werden, part 1: Von den Anfängen bis 1599 (Studien zur Tsiganologie und Folkloristik, vol. 10), Frankfurt et al. ²1997, p. 17.

[xxiii] Gratten Puxon: Zur Geschichte der Zigeuner, in: Die Zigeuner. Verkannt – Verachtet – Verfolgt, ed. by Donald Kenrick, Grattan Puxon, and Tilman Zülich, Alfeld 1980, p. 10.

[xxiv] The Greek name (read Athinganos / pl. Athinganoi) roughly translates into the ‘Untouchables’ and seems to be derived from an older heretical sect attributed with similar occupations. The name is believed to be the etymological root of the Italian Cingari, the French Tsiganes, and the German Zigeuner. However, this conclusion is not undisputed, cf. Jean-Pierre Liégeois: Sinti, Roma, Fahrende (Interface series), Berlin 2002, p. 28.

[xxv] Cf. George Christos Soulis: The Gypsies in the Byzantine Empire and the Balkans in the Late Middle Ages, in: Dumbarton Oaks Papers 15 (1961), pp. 143-165.

[xxvi] Cf. Pohl: Identification, p. 2.

[xxvii] For example Grellmann: Historischer Versuch, p. 4: “Volk des Orients;” p. 24: “wie Heuschrecken mehrere Länder von Europa überzogen;” p. 200: “orientalische Fremdlinge.”

[xxviii] Jean-Pierre Liégeois: School Provision for Gypsy and Traveller Children. Orientation Document for Reflection and for Action, in: Roma, Gypsies: Texts issued by international institutions, ed. by Marielle Danbakli and Rachel Morris, Hatfield 2001, p. 120-121; Jean-Pierre Liégeois: School Provision for Ethnic Minorities: The Gypsy Paradigm, Hatfield 1998.

[xxix] Thomas Acton: Romani Politics, Scholarship and the Discourse of Nation-Building, in: Gypsies and the Problem of Identities. Contextual, Constructed and Contested (Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul Transactions, vol. 17), ed. by Adrian Marsh and Elin Strand, Istanbul 2006, pp. 27-38; Nicolae Gheorghe and Thomas Acton: Citizens of the World and Nowhere. Minority, Ethnic and Human Rights for Roma, in: Between Past and Future. The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe, ed. by Will Guy, Hatfield 2001, pp. 54-70.

[xxx] Not only as an author, but also as a polyglot acting as an official interpreter at many international meetings, Kenrick translated from over sixty languages and spoke about thirty of them fluently. See the obituaries of the Institute of Race Relations, online available: <http://www.irr.org.uk/news/donald-kenrick-1929-2015/> (13.12.15).

[xxxi] Hanock is probably one of the most active international ambassador of Romani human rights. His involvements includes, but is not limited to being a representative of the UN, UNICEF, EU, the International Romani Union, the International Roma Parliament, as well as the president of the International Roma Federation.

[xxxii] Cf. Walter Pohl: Introduction. Ethnicity, Religion and Empire, in: Visions of community in the post-Roman world. The West, Byzantium and the Islamic World, 300-1100, ed. by Walter Pohl, Clemens Gantner, and Richard Payne, Farnham et al. 2012, p. 10.

[xxxiii] Klaus-Michael Bogdal: Unerwünschte Nachbarn. “Zigeuner” und die Angst vor den Völkern Osteuropas, in: Sinti und Roma. Eine deutsche Minderheit zwischen Diskriminierung und Emanzipation (BpB Schriftenreihe, vol. 1573), ed. by Oliver von Mengersen, Bonn /Munich 2015, pp. 87-100, especially pp. 89-90 where he even rejects the term ‘Antiziganismus’ as a poor neologism inspired by the term antisemitism which restores the discriminatory root ‘zigan’ through the backdoor of uncritical science.

[xxxiv] Klaus-Michael Bogdal: Europa erfindet die Zigeuner. Eine Geschichte von Faszination und Verachtung, Berlin 52013, p. 15.

[xxxv] Ibid., p. 25.

[xxxvi] Ibid.

[xxxvii] Wulf Dietmar Hund: Das Zigeuner-Gen. Rassistische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus, in: Zigeuner. Geschichte und Struktur einer rassistischen Konstruktion, ed. by Wulf Dietmar Hund, Duisburg 1996, p. 13.

[xxxviii] Wim Willens: Außenbilder von Sinti und Roma in der frühen Zigeunerforschung, in: Die gesellschaftliche Konstruktion des Zigeuners. Zur Genese eines Vorurteils (Wissenschaftliche Reihe des Fritz Bauer Instituts, vol. 2), ed. by Jacqueline Giere, Frankfurt / New York 1996, p. 87.

[xxxix] Cf. Opfermann: Zu Teutschland, p. 25.

[xl] Willens: Außenbilder, p. 87.

[xli] Wulf Dietmar Hund: Vorwort, in: Zigeuner. Geschichte und Struktur einer rassistischen Konstruktion, ed. by Wulf Dietmar Hund, Duisburg 1996, p. 8: “Spätestens hieran [discusses prejudices against Romanies] wird deutlich, daß Zigeuner nicht aus Indien stammen, sondern aus den ideologischen Garküchen der sich entwickelnden bürgerlichen Gesellschaft.“

[xlii] Pohl: Identification, p. 15.

[xliii] It can only incidentally be noted here that more radical constructionist approaches also have the potential to call the semantic replacing of negatively connoted terms like ‘gypsy’ with ‘Romani’ or the under-theorization of reclaiming processes into question.

[xliv] This is a circumstance unlikely to change with the discovery of new source material as the strong oral tradition of Romani groups did not encourage written ego-documentation.

[xlv] Cf. Soulis: Byzantium Empire, p. 154; Fraser: Gypsies, pp.52-53.

[xlvi] Fraser: Gypsies, p. 62. Emphases added.

[xlvii] Of course there have been earlier eastern European records of Romani presence, but they are comparatively scattered and are most often recognized linguistically by means of identifying Romani names, instead of a more elaborate ethnicity discourse. It was only when individual Romani bands advanced to western European countries during the time of the Council of Constance (1414-1418) that their presence is more frequently noted in account books and chronicles first but later in almost all sorts of written texts.

Often an entry in the account book of Hildesheim from 1407 is quoted as the first Western record. Cf. Gilsenbach: Weltchronik, p. 45. “Tateren” are mentioned here that are served wine while their papers were being checked. However, I decided not to include this source as for this early period it cannot be excluded that the bookkeeper indeed referred to actual Tatars not Romanies, as it was more likely in later texts of the 16th century. Tatars were  well-known visitors in the 13th to 15th century.

Generally speaking the selection of sources reflects my subjective evaluation of validity and authenticity concerning my research questions.

[xlviii] Hermann Kornerus: Chronicon, in: Zigeuner im Spiegel früher Chroniken und Abhandlungen. Quellen vom 15. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert, ed. by Reimer Gronemeyer, Giessen 1987, p .15: “Quaedem extranea et praecie visa vagabundaque multitudo hominum de orientalibus partibus venit in Alemannia.”

[xlix] Ibid: “Secanos se nuncupantes.”

[l] Ibid. p. 16: “Causa autem hujus divagationis eorum et peregrinationis dicebatur fuisse aversion a fide et recidivatio post conversionem suam [of their leader; generalized above] ad Paganismum. Quam quidem peregrinationem continuare tenebantur ex injuncta eis paenitentia ab Episcopis suis ad sepentennium.”

[li] Cf. Benedikt Wolf: Helfer des Feindes. Von der Häresie der Athinganoi zum „Stamm“ der Atsinganoi, in: Antiziganismus. Soziale und historische Dimensionen von “Zigeuner”-Stereotypen, ed. by Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma, Heidelberg 2015, p. 21; See also fn. 23 on page 4 of this paper.

[lii] The question whether or not, any forms derived from the Greek ‘Athinganos’ were exonyms or endonyms depends – amongst other factors – on whether the Byzantine appellation was known in western Europe. In the early sources no reference indicating such is made. The earliest one that I found was from 1553 by Caspar Peucer: cf. page 15 of this paper, especially fn. 78. However, in a later source from 1608/1614 the Greek root of the name seems unknown and a different derivation is presumed: cf. page 15, fn. 77.

[liii] Colette Beaune (Ed.): Journal d’un bourgeois de Paris. De 1405 à 1449 (Lettres Gothiques), Paris 1990. He considered his work a diary, giving his daily thoughts about Paris in the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453). Yet, most likely, he was neither a bourgeois, but a clerk, nor was this his diary, but a compilation of his retrospectively revised notes positioning his anonymous persona against Richemont and Charles VII.

[liv] Ibid. p. 234: “An 1427, vinrent à Paris douze pénanciers, comme ils disaient, […] et lesquels se disaient très bons chrétiens, et étaient de la Basse Égypte.”

[lv] Ibid. p. 235.

[lvi] Ibid. p. 238.

[lvii] Beaune, Journal, p. 238: “Et vraimen, j’y fus trois ou quatre fois pour parler à eux, mais oncques ne m’aperçus d’un denier de perte, ni ne les vis regarder en main, mais ainsi le disait le peuple partout.”

[lviii] Andreas von Regensburg: Diarium Sexennale, in: Andreas von Regenburg. Sämtliche Werke (Quellen und Erörterungen zur Bayerischen und Deutschen Geschichte, Bd. 1), ed. by Georg Leidinger, Munich 1903, pp. 318-319.

[lix] Grellmann: Historischer Versuch, p. 214, fn. 35; cf. Köhler-Zülich: Verweigerte Herberge, p. 49.

[lx] Cf. Köhler-Zülich: Verweigerte Herberge, p. 52.

[lxi] Cf. Bogdal: Europa erfindet, p. 41.

[lxii] Andreas: Diarium, p. 318: “volgariter Cigäwnär voctata.”

[lxiii] Ibid. p. 319: “In vulgo vero dicebatur, quod essent occulti terre exploratores.”

[lxiv] Ibid.

[lxv] “Aller des Heiligen Römischen Reichs gehaltener Reichstage Ordnung / Satzung und Abschied […], years 1497 [constitution] /1498 [bill has passed], 1500, 1530, 1544, 1548, and 1551, in: Gronemeyer: Chroniken und Abhandlungen, pp. 88-89.

[lxvi] Fraser: Gypsies, chap. 5 “The Turn of the Tide,” pp. 85-129.

[lxvii] Hund: Zigeuner-Gen, p. 16: “In Deutschland [ist ein Weg markiert], der vom Freiburger Reichsabschied von 1498, in dem die Zigeuner für vogelfrei erklärt werden, bis in die Vernichtungslager des Faschismus führt.“

[lxviii] Fraser: Gypsies, p. 128.

[lxix] Gottlieb Studer (Ed.): Die Berner-Chronik des Conrad Justinger, Bern 1871, p. 286: „getouft[e] heiden.“

[lxx] Ibid.

[lxxi] Ibid: “Warent von egyptenland.”

[lxxii] Cf. Soulis: Byzantium Empire, p. 154; and page 8 of this paper.

[lxxiii] Fratris Hieronymi de Forlivio: Chronicon. Ab anno MCCCXCVII usque ad annum MCCCCXXXIII, ed. by Adamo Pasini (Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, tome XIX, parte V), Bologna n.y., p. 34. Despite being actually quite close to the truth, in mental maps of the time, India was a very vaguely localizable place in the very east of the world.

[lxxiv] Aegidius Tschudi: Chronicon Helvetiam oder Gründliche Beschreibung der sowohl in dem Heiligen Römischen Reich […]. Zweyter Theil: Von Anno MCCCCXV biß MCCCCLXX, Basel 1736, 10th book, p. 116.

[lxxv] Polydor Vergil: De rerum inventoribus, in: Gronemeyer: Chroniken und Abhandlungen, pp. 74-75.

[lxxvi] Joseph-Jean Smet (Ed.): Recueil des Chroniques de Flandre. Tome III (Collection de Chroniques Belges Inédites), Brussels 1856, p. 372: “Et j’asoit ce que ces gens se deissent estre de Egipte, se ne estoient-ilz, comme depuis fut sceu, que de une ville de Alemaigne nommée en latin Epipolensis.“

[lxxvii] Martin Antoine Del Rio: Disquisitionum Magicarum Libri Sex. Quibus Continentur Accurata […], ed. by Peter Henning, Mainz ²1617 [original 1608], chap. III, quaestio V, p. 587: “Cur si pœnitentiæ terminus effluxit, pœnitentiam adhue prætexũt? Verum falsum etiam, quod de Aegypto iaƈtant. Nam interrogati nec sciunt quidem quid Aegyptus, aut ubi minor vel maior. Unde ergo emerserũt?”

[lxxviii] Ibid. pp. 587-588.

[lxxix] Del Rio: Disquisitionum, p. 587.

[lxxx] Caspar Peucer: Commentarius de Praecipuis Divinationum Generibus: in quo a Prophetiis Autoritate Divina Traditis […], Wittenberg ²1572 [original 1553], p. 160.

[lxxxi] Ibid. p. 160.

[lxxxii] Cf. John Longshaw Austin: How to do things with words (The William James Lectures delivered at Harvard University in 1955), Cambridge / MA ²1975, esp. lecture 1, p. 6 on a “performative sentence.” Jacques Derrida: Des Tours de Babel, in: Difference in Translation, ed. and trans. by Joseph Francis Graham, Ithaca / London 1985, pp. 165-207, esp. p. 180 on “the performative dimension of utterances.” Michel Foucault: Archeology of Knowledge (Routledge Classics), London / New York 2002, esp. p. 228 on “verbal performance.”

[lxxxiii] Pohl: Identification, p. 31.

[lxxxiv] Pohl: Identification, pp. 11-12. Pohl heavily based his theories on Foucault’s discourse theory.

[lxxxv] Cf. page 14 of this paper.

[lxxxvi] For further information on the process of Orientalization, compare Edward William Said: Orientalism, New York 1979, esp. p. 50 on the medieval period and the invention of the Orient by Western academe.

[lxxxvii] Cf. page 13 of this paper.

[lxxxviii] Cf. page 15 of this paper.

[lxxxix] Cf. Gronemeyer: Chroniken und Abhandlungen, p. 160 on Stumpf, Aventinus, Krantz, Muenster etc.

[xc] For a short summary of the rich research tradition in this field of identité-alterité compare Höfert, Türkengefahr, pp. 22-23.

[xci] Cf. Schmieder, Mongolen, p. 322.

[xcii] Wilhelm Matthiessen: Ulrich Richentals Chronik des Konstanzer Konzils. Studien zur Behandlung eines bürgerlichen Großereignisses durch die bürgerliche Chronistik, Zweiter Teil, in: Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum 17 (1985), p. 367.

[xciii] Rudimentum noviciorum epitome sive systema historiae universalis auctore incerto confecta et in sex aetates divisa ab 1473, 2 vols., Lübeck 1475, UB Ffm. Inc.fol. 118, in: Schmieder, Mongols, ill. 23.

[xciv] Schmieder: Mongols, p. 188-192.

[xcv] Kornerus: Chronicon, p. 15.

[xcvi] Schmieder, Mongols, p. 103.

[xcvii] For instance, Beaunne, Journal, p. 235 and page 10 of this paper. Or Albano Sorbelli (Ed.): Corpus Chronicorum Bononiensum, Parte 1, vol. 3 (Rerum Italicarium Scriptores, vol. 18), Città di Castello 1910-1938, p. 568: “Lo quale ducha [duke Andreas, one of the Romani leaders that came to Bologna in 1424] si havea renegade la fede christiana, et lo re d’Ungaria prese la soa terra et lui, et si li disse lo dicto ducha ch’ello voleva retornare a la fede christiana, et si se batezò cum tucto quello puovolo, salvo che quilli, che non volseno retornare a la fede funo morti; et quilli che tornono a la fede funo da quattrocento o più. Et poi che ‘l re d’Ungaria gli avé prisi e rebatezadi, volseno ch’egli andasseno per lo mondo sette anni et ch’elli dovesseno andare a Roma al papa et poi retornasseno in suo paese.”

[xcviii] Liber vagatorum, [1510], p. [6], online available: <http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00009344/image_1> (19.12.15).

[xcix] Cf. page 8 of this paper.

[c] Martin Luther: Vorrede zu Von der falschen Bettler Büberei, in: D. Martin Luthers Werke. Kritische Gesamtausgabe, vol. 26, without ed., Weimar 1909, p. 634.

[ci] Luther: Vorrede, p. 638.

[cii] Martin Luther: Kirchenpostille 1522, in: D. Martin Luthers Werke. Kritische Gesamtausgabe, vol. 10/1, without ed., Weimar 1909, p. 559. Luther distinguished here between predictions by prophets and by demons. The Romanies’ (Thattern odder Zygeuner) black magic (schwartze Kunst) belongs to the latter category.

[ciii] Martin Luther: Von Ehesachen 1530, in: D. Martin Luthers Werke. Kritische Gesamtausgabe, vol. 30/3, without ed., Weimar 1909, p. 225-226. Luther said that Romanies (Thattern odder Zygeuner) steal and run away, let women remarry ten times and children baptize ten times.

[civ] Martin Luther: Von den Juden und ihren Lügen 1543, in: D. Martin Luthers Werke. Kritische Gesamtausgabe, vol. 53, without ed., Weimar 1909, p. 523: „Dafur mag man sie [die Juden] etwa unter ein Dach oder Stal thun, wie die Zigeuner, auff das sie in wissen, sie seien nicht Herrn in unserem Lande, wie sie rühmen, sondern im Elend und gefangen, wie sie on unterlas fur Gott uber uns zeter schreien und klagen.“

[cv] Cf. Donald Kenrick / Grattan Puxon: Gypsies under the Swastika, Hatfield 2009, p. 4.

[cvi] Fratris Hieronymi de Forlivio: Chronicon, p. 34.

[cvii] As far as I can tell, the earliest source that links the emergence of the plague to the arrival of the Romanies, was a 17th century meistersinger from Nuermberg who presumed that ‘Zigeuner’ was a fake identity of Jews emerging from caves where they hid from persecution. Iulia-Karin Patrut: Phantasma Nation: ‘Zigeuner’ und Juden als Grenzfiguren des ‘Deutschen‘ (1770-1920), habil. 2012, Würzburg 2014, pp. 116-118. For further information on Jewish pogroms in the context of the plague, cf. Klaus Bergdolt: Der Schwarze Tod in Europa. Die Große Pest und das Ende des Mittelalters, Munich 1994, pp. 119-145.

[cviii] Cf. Arno Herzig: Die Fremden im frühmodernen Staat, in: Die gesellschaftliche Konstruktion des Zigeuners. Zur Genese eines Vorurteils (Wissenschaftliche Reihe des Fritz Bauer Instituts, vol. 2), ed. by Jacqueline Giere, Frankfurt / New York 1996, p. 33.

[cix] For Romanies on the other hand, language does not appear in the sources as a distinctive factor. They seemed to have spoken the local languages. Cf. page 12 of this paper.

[cx] Gronemeyer: Chroniken und Abhandlungen, pp. 159-161.

[cxi] Fraser: Gypsies, p. 62.

[cxii] Cf. Bogdal: Unerwünschte Nachbarn, pp. 87-88; Hund: Vorwort, pp. 7-10.

[cxiii] Hancock: Romani people, pp. 2 and 31.

[cxiv] Wippermann, Außenseiter.

[cxv] Fraser: Gypsies, p. 62; cf. page 8 of this paper.